Anatomy of the heart



Heart is the main organ responsible for vital processes. Such as nutrition and oxygen supply to the body and organs. For the simplicity heart can be understood as two separate blood pumps, controlled electrically by sinoatrial (SA) and atrioventricular (AV) nodes and they are regulated by central nervous system [26]. Originated electrical impulse at SA node stimulates the atrial muscle causing it to contract and pushes blood into ventricles. Arrived electrical impulse at the AV node is delayed to allow atria to contract and fill ventricles of the blood. Then electrical signal continuous to a bundle of nerve fibres called Bundle of His (Figure: left). Bundle of His continuous down to a left and right bundle branches and terminated at the small fibres called Purkinje Fibres, which distributes arrived electrical impulse to the heart muscle cells causing ventricular stimulation.










Left: Hearts electrical conduction path; Right: Hearts cross-section Left: Hearts electrical conduction path; Right: Hearts cross-section
Left: Hearts electrical conduction path; Right: Hearts cross-section

Heart composed of four chambers; upper two are called atrias, and lower two are called ventricles (Figure: right). Blood flow direction controlled by four valves, permitting forward flow and forbidding backward flow. Right side of the heart has tricuspid and pulmonic valves, which regulate deoxygenated blood flow returned from the body and organs. Deoxygenated blood flows to the right atrium and then atria contracts and pushes blood to the right ventricle. The ventricle contracts and blood flows to the lungs. The left side of the heart has mitral and aortic valves, which regulate oxygenated blood flow returned from the lungs. Oxygenated blood flows to the left atrium and then atria contracts and blood flows into a left ventricle. The left ventricle contracts and again pushes the blood to the body and organs. For the more details see appendix B.


2015 Heart Risk Warner
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