Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure or blood force created during heart's muscle contraction, where blood
moves through the vascular system. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures are expressed in
different cardiac cycles. Systolic pressure is created during the contraction of the heart ventricles which is the
max pressure in the vascular system, and diastolic pressure is the minimum pressure between ventricular
contractions – when the heart is in the rest. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures are expressed 125/85
mmHg which is due to normal blood pressure.
It was believed that a correlation existed between blood pressure and physical activity. During physical
activity the demand for oxygen and nutrition are increased, compared with rest time. Therefore, heart rate
increases, pushing more blood into the vascular system. Energy expenditure is the most important single
variable describing the physical activity, believed to be related to the blood pressure. Fagard  found that
there is no significant correlation between systolic, diastolic blood pressure and the energy expenditure
(r=0.14, r=-0.02). However, another study showed that blood pressure decreases immediately after physical
activities, systolic pressure was found to decrease by 3.84 and diastolic pressure by 2.58 mmHg .
Myrphy found the reduction of systolic blood pressure in woman to differ according to the physical activity
effectuated, in his experiment the blood pressure was lowered after three short 10 min walks by between 7.4
and 7.3 mmHg, compared to one 30 min walk when the BP was lowered by between 4.6 and 5.9 mmHg .
According to American Heart Association (AHA)  and Yale University School of medicine heart book ,
resting blood pressure can be classified into cardiovascular risk groups, as shown in Table 3.2 (also similar
classification belongs to WHO). Correct blood pressure estimation can be significant cardiovascular risk
prevention. The Framingham Heart Study  found a correlation between SBP, DBP, pulse pressure (PP)
and age. Advancing in age, the cardiovascular risk indicator shifts from SBP to DBP. Thus, in a 50 or
younger age group, the systolic blood pressure is the strongest cardiovascular risk predictor. In ages
between 50-59 SBP, DBP and PP provide similar risk indicators. However, in ages above 60 years, the
strongest cardiovascular risk predictor is DBP. Long term prospective studies  showed that in ages from
40-69, a 20 mmHg difference from usual systolic BP and a 10 mmHg diastolic BP, correlates to
doubling stroke and mortality rates. Hypertension, or increased blood pressure, forces to bring a greater
payload to the heart. Leading consequences is enlarged heart muscle, which in time become stiff, weak and
unable to pump blood efficiently. Therefore, this can lead to stroke, heart failure or even death . During
1940 – 1950s the most common cause of death was hypertension. However, in recent days hypertension
can be controlled with right medications.
Factors, which can change the blood pressure, are coffee, smoking, alcohol intake, medications, day of