Heart rate, resting heart rate

Heart rate usually expreesed into beats per minute, shows how many times your heart beats per one minute. Usually heart rate is a little bit lower on a sitting position than standing position. To obtain your heart rate you need to place ECG electrodes or PPG sensor or both of them.

Resting heart rate is the heart rate at the rest time, which is expressed into beats per minute (bpm). According to [6] RHR can be mortality risk or lifespan indicator. Framingham study showed that increased RHR has significant correlation with cardiovascular diseases and coronary heart diseases, which are leading cause to the increased mortality rates [32]. Thus, 65 – 74 bpm of RHR constitute mortality of 30%, and 84 bpm constitute 50% of mortality in 2037 subjects with hypertension. Another long term clinical experiment with 2293 hypertensive elderly subjects included men and women, showed similar results [6].

In healthy and subjects with cardiovascular disease's RHR is the independent predictor of all cause of mortality, between woman and men [8]. Increased RHR have effect of development of myocardial ischemia and ventricular arrhythmias in patients with cardiovascular diseases [8]. Thus, cardiovascular risk continuously rises after 60 bpm. Frequency of ischemic episodes in patients with coronary artery diseases is related to mean resting heart rate. It showed that patients with greater than 80 bpm RHR have ischemia accidents almost twice often than who have RHR lower than 70 bpm [8].

Resting heart rate varies along the age and individuals and also depends on body position. Reported that heart rate is decreasing with age; as well heart rate is a bit lower in men than in a woman. And finally, heart rate is being higher for about three bpm in sitting position than in lying. However, still general pattern is desirable for the optimal RHR, between all the individuals. Palatini et. al. explored RHR frequency distribution shape, and found two subgroups of the heart rate ‘normal’ and ‘high’. Optimal heart rate value proposed to be between 75 and 85 bpm. And this is out of the range, where generally defined tachycardia 90 – 100 bpm and higher, and bradycardia 60 bpm and lower. However noticeable that many athletes have the heart rate lower than 60 bpm. This is because of stronger heart muscle, which can during one beat deliver more blood.

Maximal physical capacity can be expressed with maximal heart rate, which is important in proper rehabilitation, physical activity and disease prevention programs. For instance, in some clinical settings, physical activity is stopped when subject reaches 85% of his maximal heart rate. Maximal heart rate in healthy adults who not taking any medication has the correlation with age and generalized to (220 – age); however, it underestimates max heart rate in older adults. Therefore, new equation (209 – 0.7 × age) proposed by [7], which is independent on gender and habitual physical activity. >>

[6] Heart rate, lifespan, and mortality risk. Gus Q. Zhang a, Weiguo Zhang b,1,* a The University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. b Cardiovascular and Neurological Consulting Institute, 6771 San Fernando, Irving, TX 75039-3061, USA
[7] Age-Predicted Maximal Heart Rate Revisited. Hirofumi Tanaka, PHD, Kevin D. Monahan, MS, Douglas R. Seals, PHD. Boulder and Denver, Colorado
[8] Resting Heart Rate in Cardiovascular Disease. Kim Fox, MD, FESC,* Jeffrey S. Borer, MD, FACC,† A. John Camm, MD, FESC, FACC,‡Nicolas Danchin, MD, FESC,§ Roberto Ferrari, MD, FESC, Jose L. Lopez Sendon, MD, FESC, FACC,¶ Philippe Gabriel Steg, MD, FESC, FACC,#Jean-Claude Tardif, MD, FACC, FRCPC,** Luigi Tavazzi, MD, FESC, FACC,††Michal Tendera, MD, FESC, FACC,‡‡ for the Heart Rate Working GroupLondon, England; New York, New York; Paris, France; Ferrara and Pavia, Italy; Madrid, Spain;Montreal, Canada; and Katowice, Poland
[32] Gillman, M.W., Kannel, W.B., Belanger, A., D’Agostino, R.B., 1993. Influence of heart rate on mortality among persons with hypertension: the Framingham Study

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