Pulse wave velocity
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is another method for the arterial stiffness measurement, which has strong
correlation between cardiovascular events. PWV represents a velocity of pulse pressure wave, traveling at
the vascular system. Two measurement points are employed with known distances between them, to
estimate PWV. Gold standard method measures PWV at carotid to femoral artery points . Several
studies [81-82] showed that pulse wave velocity can be estimated at the two-hand points (wrist, and finger).
However, there is no evidence how well this new technique correlates to the known gold standard technique.
PPG technology can be employed for the proper PWV measurements. Pulse wave velocity can be expressed:
delta(x) – distance between two measuring locations, dt – time delay between two pulse waves at the same feature point
According to other source, pulse wave velocity between 5-15 m/s is indicated as normal , which is
different in age groups. Table 3.3 summarizes PWV to age and blood pressure groups. Large PWV
deviations make difficulties to differentiate between risk and age groups, for instance, optimal and grade II/III
HT. Therefore, seems that only top value can work as the threshold to indicate risk.