Electrocardiographs, plethysmographs, tonometers, Holter ECG are conventional tools in practical medicine. Most of them are stationary and widely used in hospital as well as in clinics, for instance traditional electrocardiograph (see appendix I, Fig 15.29). Holter ECG (see appendix I, Fig 15.30) is capable to record electrocardiogram as the standard electrocardiograph and designed for the ambulatory use. However, still stationary electrocardiographs are irreplaceable in hospitals and clinics. Functionality of stationary electrocardiographs can be available in real time use, for instance during surgery, which is the lack in traditional Holter ECG. Normally 24h record transferred from Holter ECG to a computer application, which is later analyzed by the health care provider.

Practical medicine is already full of available tools and methods, which are day to day improved by new technologies. However, technologies and techniques in hospitals are far from daily time use. Most challenging part is bio-signal recordings, which should preserve daily life activities with minimal intervention of sensors. This chapter reviews found state of the art hardware solutions and existing blood pressure measuring techniques related to the practical use in daily life activities.

  • Hardware related issues
  • Dry foam electrodes
  • Micro-needle [69] and nano-spikes [72] electrodes
  • capacitive coupling electrodes
  • Concentric circular ring (Fig 5.4) electrode
  • Indirect-contact photoplethysmography

  • Blood pressure measuring techniques
  • Pulse transit time technique
  • Pulse wave velocity technique
  • Pulse wave feature technique

  • See also:
  • Medical methods

  • 2015 Heart Risk Warner